INFO: What is TCP/IP?
Description: The foundation of modern networks is a simple address.
How do computers talk to each other and move information between them? The foundation of the process is a simple number assignment that lets computers know where they can send information. The normal user does not see these numbers or have any use for them as long as the system works well. For most home networks this is a set of numbers beginning with 192.168.xxx.xxx. For example, the number for a specific computer, printer or cell phone could be 192.168.1.103. These numbers are given to the computer in two ways: Dynamic - delivering them to the computer by the router using the network cable connections OR Static - entering them manually/physically into the computer. The numbers are called IP addresses. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is the full name for the networking structure. It is the way information is moved between devices that have an address number.
Dynamic numbers are assigned by a home router in the following way. A device will talk to a router on the network and request an address. The router then assigns a number from its own pool of numbers to that device or computer. This number is leased for a period of time, typically a few hours. It is the router's job to make sure that all the devices that connect to it have different addresses. This avoids crashes and conflicts. The numbers for every device must be different. Sometimes it is difficult to set up a router because it has the same address as the modem that is already there. Normally this is 192.168.0.1. To fix this, change the IP address of the Router to a different number like 192.168.1.1 or 192.168.5.1.
Before any information can reach a home or office some other computer at the Internet Service Provider must send an address to the modem inside the house. Once the Modem has an address it can give an address (or pass one through) to a computer or router. Some routers have been assigned a specific address by a company or person. Routers and switches across the whole internet keep the numbers assigned correctly and the information flowing to the right address. This way it only takes moments for information to travel from one computer to another one - even around the world.
To make sure that all the addresses have been assigned correctly in order:
- Power down the Modem, router and computer.
- Make sure the Ethernet cables are plugged into the modem, router and computer according to instructions.
- Wait for 1 minute.
- Turn on the modem and wait for 1 minute.
- Turn on the router and wait for 1 minute.
- Turn on the computer last. This pattern will allow the addresses to pass from one device to the next correctly.