In the computer industry, the
process of bringing information from one device to
another. Usually applies to the movement of pictures
from a digital camera to a host computer via a USB
Analog (or Analogue)
A signal which
changes over a range of values. For example, the video
and audio outputs of a VHS videocassette recorder are
analog signals [compare Digital].
of binary digit. One bit in a file represents either
a one or a zero.
A file format,
in which each pixel of an image is recorded with the
same number of bits. No compression is used in bitmap
files, so they contain all the detail of the original
image. However, bitmap files take up much more space
in memory and / or mass storage when they are recorded
in a computer.
A standardized group
of colors, used to ensure that an image will retain
its same colors as it is acquired, edited, stored and
A memory-module standard,
used in digital cameras. The Compact Flash family is
an earlier standard, and is thicker and larger than
other newer types of modules.
process of making an image file take up less memory
space, while retaining most of the detail of the original
image. The most common compression system used in digital
imaging is the JPEG format.
which changes only between two values: on and off,
positive and negative. For example, when a digital
camera is connected to a USB port, the camera's
output is a digital signal [compare Analog].
A feature in digital cameras, whereby
the outer edges of an image are discarded, and the
center of the image is expanded to fill the entire
image. Digital zooming simulates what a "zoom
lens" does in a film camera, but does not move
the camera's lens, and thus saves battery power.
However, as with compression, it loses some of the
original image's detail. Digital cameras express
their digital zoom in terms of how many times closer
the image appears (3x, 8x, and so forth)
between its "wide-angle" and its "telephoto" setting.
A printing process in which
wax-based colored dye is heated to its vapor point
(thus becoming "sublime"). The vapor particles
cool as they come in contact with the printing paper,
and solidify into colored dots. Professional color
printers often use dye sublimation, or "dye-sub" for
Graphics Interchange File Format.
Developed by CompuServe in 1987 as a standard format
for graphics in their network. GIF includes the ability
to render colors transparent, allowing text and graphics
to be layered over one another, making the format popular
in website graphics.
Gloss (or Glossy)
on photo-quality paper, which adds a glass-like appearance
to the surface of a printed picture [compare Matte].
A printer which sprays microscopic
droplets of colored ink onto paper. Epson printers
compress the ink by flexing quartz crystals in their
print-head nozzles: Canon and Hewlett Packard printers
heat their ink nozzles electrically.
The Joint Photographic Experts' Group.
A combined effort of the International Standards Organization
(ISO) and the International Telecommunications Union
(ITU), JPEG creates and codifies standards for use
in the photographic industry around the world. The
JPEG compression standard is frequently applied to
storing image files in digital cameras.
printer which uses infrared light from a laser and
a powdered toner to form an image on a light-sensitive
drum, then transfer the image to paper. Color laser
printers repeat this process (basically the same as
in a copying machine) four times, with black, cyan,
magenta and yellow toner powders.
on photo-quality paper, which adds a soft, slightly
reflective appearance to the surface of a printed picture
Memory Stick (MS)
standard, distinctive to Sony digital cameras.
sub-miniature hard disk drive, which is sized and shaped
to fit in a "Type II" Compact Flash module
slot. Microdrives can store more information than Compact
Flash modules (up to 4 gigabytes).
A memory-module standard, used in some
digital cameras. Multimedia Cards are smaller and lighter
than Compact Flash cards, and are (in most cases) cross-compatible
with Secure Digital cards.
in either digital or film cameras, whereby the lens
is extended or retracted to change the relative size
of the image being taken. Digital cameras express their
optical zoom in terms of how many times closer the
image appears (3x, 8x, and so forth) when
the lens is set from "wide angle" to "telephoto".
Back-formation of picture element. An
individual point on a digital image, with a given value
of brightness (luminance) and color (chrominance).
Portable Network Graphics. PNG offers the
same transparency features as GIF, but with greater
color depth, better compression and brightness control.
PNG is being proposed by some groups as a replacement
A memory-module standard,
used in some digital cameras. Using the same encoding
method as in DVD Audio media, data stored in Secure
Digital cards can be protected from being read in other
devices. Most digital cameras do not encode their pictures
when taken on a Secure Digital card.
memory-module standard, used in some earlier digital
cameras. SmartMedia cards were very thin and lightweight,
and consumed less power than early Compact Flash cards.
Tagged Interchange File Format. Developed
by the predecessor of Adobe Systems. TIFF is compatible
with many different graphics programs, and can compress
graphics files with no loss of the original data ("lossless
compression"). However, TIFF files are larger,
and take longer to open, than other file formats.
Universal Serial Bus: a computer-industry standard
for connecting a host computer (the "root")
to one or more peripheral devices. USB peripherals
can be connected or disconnected without turning either
the computer or the peripheral off.
memory-module standard, distinctive to Olympus and
Fuji digital cameras.